C2. Key Sources of Estimation Uncertainty

The preparation of financial statements requires management and the Board of Directors to make estimates and judgments that affect reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses, and related disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. These estimates are based on historical experience and various other assumptions that management and the Board believe are reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions, significantly impacting TeliaSonera’s earnings and financial position.

Management believes that the following areas comprise the most difficult, subjective or complex judgments it has to make in the preparation of the financial statements. For information on accounting policies applied, see the respective sections of Note C3 “Significant Accounting Policies.” 

Revenue recognition

For a telecom operator, to determine fair values and if or when revenue should be recognized requires management judgment in a number of cases, such as when signing agreements with third-party providers for content services (whether TeliaSonera acts as principal or agent under a certain agreement); in complex bundling of products, services and rights to use assets into one customer offering (whether TeliaSonera should recognize the separate items up-front or defer); the sales of Indefeasible Rights of Use (IRUs); and in assessing the degree of completion in service and construction contracts. 

Income taxes

Significant management judgment is required in determining current tax liabilities and assets as well as provisions for deferred tax liabilities and assets, in particular as regards valuation of deferred tax assets. As part of this process, income taxes have to be estimated in each of the jurisdictions in which TeliaSonera operates. The process involves estimating the actual current tax exposure together with assessing temporary differences resulting from the different valuation of certain assets and liabilities in the financial statements and in the tax returns. Management must also assess the probability that the deferred tax assets will be recovered from future taxable income.

Actual results may differ from these estimates due to, among other factors, future changes in business environment, currently unknown changes in income tax legislation, or results from the final review of tax returns by tax authorities or by courts of law. For additional information on deferred tax assets and liabilities and their carrying values as of the end of the reporting period, see Note C11 “Income Taxes.” 

Valuation of intangible and other non-current assets

Intangible assets, and property, plant and equipment represent approximately 60 percent of TeliaSonera’s total assets. 

Useful lives

Determination of the useful lives of asset classes involves taking into account historical trends and making assumptions related to future socio-economic and technological development and expected changes in market behavior. These assumptions are prepared by management and subject to review by the Audit Committee of the Board of Directors.

Currently, the following amortization and depreciation rates are applied.


Trade names Individual evaluation, minimum 10 percent
Telecom and frequency licenses, numbering rights Remaining license period, minimum 5 percent
Interconnect and roaming agreements Agreement term, based on the remaining useful life of the related license
Customer relationships Individual evaluation, based on historic and projected churn
Capitalized development expenses 20 percent
Other intangible assets 20–33 percent or individual evaluation
Buildings 2–10 percent
Land improvements 2 percent
Capitalized improvements on leased premises Remaining term of corresponding lease
Mobile networks (base stations and other installations) 14.5–20 percent
Fixed networks  
– Switching systems and transmission systems 10–20 percent
– Transmission media (cable) 5–10 percent
– Equipment for special networks 10 percent
– Usufruct agreements of limited duration Agreement term or time corresponding to the underlying asset
– Other installations 2–33 percent
Equipment, tools and installations 10–33 percent
Customer premises equipment under service arrangements 33 percent, or agreement term if longer


In 2011 and 2010, amortization, depreciation and impairment losses totaled SEK 13,023 million and SEK 13,479 million, respectively. For additional information on intangible and tangible assets subject to amortization and depreciation and their carrying values as of the end of the reporting period see Note C13 “Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets” and Note C14 “Property, Plant and Equipment.” 

Impairment testing

A number of significant assumptions and estimates are involved when measuring value in use based on the expected future discounted cash flows attributable to an asset, for example with respect to factors such as market growth rates, revenue volumes, market prices for telecommunications services, costs to maintain and develop communications networks and working capital requirements. Forecasts of future cash flows are based on the best estimates of future revenues and operating expenses using historical trends, general market conditions, industry trends and forecasts and other available information. These assumptions are prepared by management and subject to review by the Audit Committee of the Board of Directors. The cash flow forecasts are adjusted by an appropriate discount rate derived from TeliaSonera’s cost of capital plus a reasonable risk premium at the date of evaluation. For additional information on goodwill and its carrying value as of the end of the reporting period, see Note C13 “Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets.” 

Collectability of trade receivables 

TeliaSonera’s allowance for doubtful receivables reflects estimated losses that result from the inability of customers to make required payments. Management determines the size of the allowance based on the likelihood of recoverability of accounts receivable taking into account actual losses in prior years and current collection trends. Should economic or specific industry trends worsen compared to management estimates, the allowance may have to be increased, negatively impacting earnings. See section “Credit risk management” in Note C27 “Financial Risk Management” for a description of how risks related to trade receivables are mitigated. For additional information on the allowance for doubtful receivables and its carrying value as of the end of the reporting period, see Note C18 “Trade and Other Receivables.”

Provisions for pensions and employment contracts

The most significant assumptions that management has to make in connection with the actuarial calculation of pension obligations and pension expenses affect the discount rate, the expected annual rate of compensation increase, the expected employee turnover rate, the expected average remaining working life, the expected annual income base amount increase (only for Swedish entities), the expected annual adjustments to pensions, and the expected annual return on plan assets. These assumptions are prepared by management and subject to review by the Audit Committee of the Board of Directors. A change in any of these key assumptions may have a significant impact on the projected benefit obligations, funding requirements and periodic pension cost. For additional information on assumptions made and on pension obligations and their present values as of the end of the reporting period, see Note C22 “Provisions for Pensions and Employment Contracts.”

The discount rate reflects the rates at which the pension obligations could be effectively settled, which means a period somewhere from 15 to 30 years. The rate used to discount pension obligations shall be determined by reference to market yields at the end of the reporting period on high-quality corporate bonds. In countries where there is no deep market in such bonds, the market yields at the end of the reporting period on government bonds shall be used. The currency and term of the corporate bonds or government bonds shall be consistent with the currency and estimated term of the pension obligations. For Sweden, which represents approximately 86 percent of TeliaSonera’s pension obligations, historical practice has been to reference long-term nominal government bonds in setting the discount rate, due to the perceived lack of a deep market in high-quality corporate bonds. In 2010, however, a review of the Swedish covered mortgage bond market was carried out, with the objective of determining whether this market satisfied the requirements of IAS 19 in serving as a reference for setting the discount rate. The covered mortgage bond market, which has grown steadily over the last few years, consists of bonds issued mainly by affiliates of Swedish banks and covered by pools of mortgages, and contains a large number of bonds rated AA or higher by the major credit rating agencies. Following this review, management, along with many other employers in Sweden, concluded that the covered bond market is in fact a deep corporate bond market, as defined in IAS 19, paragraph 78, and as such, is an appropriate reference in determining the discount rate. Management adjusts the reference rate derived from covered bond market yields to reflect any difference between the inflation rate used to estimate expected annual adjustments to pensions (see below) and the implied inflation rate indicated by the financial markets at the end of the reporting period. See section “Pension obligation risk” in Note C27 “Financial Risk Management” for a sensitivity analysis related to a change in the weighted average discount rate used in calculating pension provisions.

The expected annual rate of compensation increase reflects expected future salary increases as a compound of inflation, seniority and promotion. The estimate is based on historical data on salary increases and on the expected future inflation rate (see also below). Historical data is also the basis for estimating the employee turnover rate, which reflects the expected level of employees, by age class, leaving the company through natural attrition.

The estimate for expected average remaining working life is based on current employee age distribution and the expected employee turnover rate. The income base amount, existing only in Sweden, is set annually and inter alia used for determining the ceiling for pensionable income in the public pension system. The estimate for the expected annual income base amount increase is based on the expected future inflation rate and the historical annual rate of compensation increase on the total labor market.

Expected annual adjustments to pensions reflect the inflation rate. In determining this rate, management has chosen to use the annual inflation target rates set by the national and European central banks.

The expected annual return on plan assets reflects the average rate of earnings expected on the investments made (or to be made) to provide for the pension benefit obligations that are secured by the pension funds. Plan assets chiefly consist of fixed income instruments and equity instruments.

The expected nominal net return from the Swedish pension fund portfolio, representing approximately 85 percent of total plan assets, is currently 4.5 percent per annum over a 10-year period, where inflation is assumed to be 2.0 percent per annum. The strategic allocation of plan assets is composed to give the expected average return. More specifically the expected gross nominal return is based on the following assumptions; domestic and global fixed income 3.0 percent, domestic and global equities 7.0 percent and other investments 7.0 percent. The assumptions used in the non-Swedish pension funds are similar. 

Put options related to non-controlling interests, provisions for restructuring activities, contingent liabilities and litigation

The determination of redemption amounts for put options related to non-controlling interests involves management judgment and estimates of vital factors such as the likelihood of exercise of the option and the timing thereof, projected cash flows of the underlying operations, the weighted average cost of capital, etc. A change in any of these factors may have a significant impact on future results and cash flows.

TeliaSonera has engaged, and may in the future need to engage, in restructuring activities, which require management to make significant estimates related to expenses for severance and other employee termination costs, lease cancellation, site dismantling and other exit costs and to realizable values of assets made redundant or obsolete (see section “Valuation of intangible and other non-current assets” above). Should the actual amounts differ from these estimates, future results could be materially impacted.

Determination of the treatment of contingent assets and liabilities in the financial statements is based on management’s view of the expected outcome of the applicable contingency. Management consults with legal counsel on matters related to litigation and other experts both within and outside the company with respect to matters in the ordinary course of business.

For additional information on put options related to non-controlling interests and restructuring provisions, including their carrying values as of the end of the reporting period, and on contingencies and litigation, see Notes C23 “Other Provisions” and C30 “Contingencies, Other Contractual Obligations and Litigation,” respectively.